Those objections, however, were quickly pushed aside by the clique that surrounded Mac Arthur.
Pressure to conclude the war in one massive offensive became too difficult to contain.
Blood plasma had to be heated for 90 minutes before it could be used. On November 21, they were ordered to move across a riverbed containing what they had been told would be only ankle-deep water that would present no problem. 2nd and 25th Divisions and the 1st Turkish Brigade; the ROK 6th, 7th, and 8th divisions; and the 1st Cavalry Division in Army reserve. Intelligence tried to get some realistic estimates about the Chinese troop strength and their movements. I Corps in the east was the IX Army Group of the Chinese Third Field Army with 12 infantry divisions of about 120,000 men.
Medicines that were water-soluble froze, and sweat that accumulated in the soldiers’ boots froze during the night. Army’s 7th Division and other units were not prepared for arctic warfare. The night before, however, upstream dams had been opened and the water released. Daily briefings in early November indicated a dramatic increase in Chinese and North Korean troop strength from 40,100 to 98,400 men. Assembled in front of Walker’s IX Corps in the west was the XIII Army Group of the Chinese Fourth Field Army, consisting of 18 infantry divisions totaling at least 180,000 men. The total Chinese strength was about 300,000 men; 12 divisions of the North Korean Peoples Army added approximately 65,000 men to the enemy strength.
6/12/2006 • Military History The Korean War, described by many, including then President Harry S.
Nonetheless, the die was cast for Walker’s Eighth Army.Another difference that was to count very highly against the United Nations and the United States was adherence to routine, World War II thinking and tactics.Chinese used soldiers were expected to carry on their backs all the food each soldier required for at least six days.The terrain of northern Korea, with its long v-shaped valleys, high craggy mountain ridges and the lack of any real discernible roads, along with the incredible numbing cold sweeping across the forward-moving army, contributed the elements of tragedy that shaped the battle to come. The soldiers waded into frigid, waist-deep water with chunks of ice floating in it. 24th Division, the British 27th Brigade, and the Republic of Korea (ROK) 1st Division; the U. The North Korean soldiers had recovered sufficiently from their earlier reverses at the hands of the Americans to be judged by their commanders to be battle worthy. Enemy strength was more than slightly underestimated.After several unsuccessful attempts, the crossing was called off. Added to that array were about 40,000 guerrillas operating behind the U. The Chinese army had managed to move a vast number of troops by the most primitive means.A Japanese food processor was hired to provide rations that met the Turkish requirements. The Turks favored a heavy, substantial bread containing nonbleached flour along with thick, strong, heavily sweetened coffee. Few American liaison officers were attached to the Turkish companies, thereby adding to the problems the Turks faced in their initial combat operations.